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Geographical Looks of Romania

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" To understand a country, one must first understand its land."

Discover the land of

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Source: The 1995 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia
Maps are copyright Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc.

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Romania: Facts in Brief

Capital: Bucharest.
Official Language: Romanian
Official Name: Republica Romania (Republic of Romania).
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E
Land boundaries: Total: 2,508 km
Border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km
Area: Total area: 237,500 km2
Land area: 230,340 km2
Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Greatest distances:
E-W: about 450 mi. (724 km); N-S: about 320 mi. (515 km).
Coastline: 130 mi. (209 km).

Border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km

Maritime claims: Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Elevation: Highest: Mount Moldoveanu, 8,343 ft. (2,543 m) above sea level.
Lowest: sea level.
Climate: Temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Population: Estimated 1996 population: 23,611,000.
Density: 257 persons per mi2 (99 per km2).
Distribution: 56 % urban, 44 % rural.
1992 census: 22,760,449.
Estimated 2001 population: 24,152,000.
Chief Products: Agriculture: corn, potatoes, wheat, milk, sugar beets, grapes, wool.
Manufacturing: machinery, cement, iron and steel, petroleum products, processed foods, clothing and shoes, wood products.
Mining: petroleum, natural gas, coal.
Terrain: Central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
Highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources: Petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt
Land use: Arable land: 43%
Permanent crops: 3%
Meadows and pastures: 19%
Forest and woodland: 28%
Other: 7%
Environment: Current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
International agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Irrigated land: 34,500 sq km (1989 est.)
International disputes: Certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine - including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940.
National Anthem: "Desteapta-te, Romane"
("Romanian, Arise").
Money: Basic unit: leu.

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